News Article

Feature: The Humble Origins of Animal Crossing

Posted by Martin Watts

How an obscure little N64 title grew into a hit franchise for Nintendo

The hype and excitement for Animal Crossing: New Leaf across the web is reaching a critical level. Hitting North America on 9th June and Europe on 14th June, it begs the question whether some people might literally explode as a result of not being able to contain their excitement. To think that a game series, where the main focus is that there really isn't any focus whatsoever, has got so many of us gamers frothing at the mouth in anticipation is perhaps a tad bizarre. Only Nintendo could muster up a title where you carry out what should be mundane tasks, make idle chit-chat with anthropomorphic animals and not only make it fun, but make it so much fun that it practically flies off the shelves and into people's systems.

Since its global debut on the GameCube, the Animal Crossing series has been a considerable success for Nintendo. Animal Crossing: Wild World for the DS stands out as the true champion of the series, selling an astonishing 11.7 million copies during its lifespan, but each title has been a multi-million seller. Moreover, Animal Crossing: New Leaf has already flown past the 3 million mark in Japan alone.

But how did the Animal Crossing series grow to become the massive moneymaker it is today? Interestingly, the franchise wasn't an instant hit for Nintendo, and rather its success came about as a result of some good business sense and a bit of luck.

In case you weren't aware, the GameCube wasn't the first Nintendo system to receive an Animal Crossing game; that honour actually goes to the Nintendo 64. Released exclusively in Japan in 2001, Dōbutsu no Mori (which translates as Animal Forest) had the misfortune of arriving towards the end of the N64's lifespan. This was a key factor, as the game's limited chances of decent sales were essentially what motivated Nintendo to port the game to the GameCube later that year.

A criticism often heard in recent years regarding the Animal Crossing series is that there isn't enough innovation between titles. However, looking back at Dōbutsu no Mori now actually shows just how far the series has come along.

The core gameplay is essentially the same as the later GameCube port which both Europe and North America also enjoyed. One of the N64 version's most impressive features is, funnily enough, the real-time clock system. Unlike the GameCube, the Nintendo 64 did not feature an internal clock, meaning that a special clock had to be built into the Animal Crossing cartridge itself. It may not seem like a big deal, but this was innovative at the time and shows that despite now being obsolete, the humble cartridge was a versatile format when it needed to be.

With that said, the limited storage space offered by the medium meant that the original game has far fewer features than its GameCube counterpart. For example, it might surprise you to learn that Mayor Tortimer, despite being a million and one years old, does not in fact appear in the N64 version. Nor does Kapp'n, the Able Sisters and Blathers. In comparison to the 3DS version, Dōbutsu no Mori is a very quiet place to live. Therefore, when it comes to starting your new town in Animal Crossing: New Leaf, our advice would be that you don't take your new mayoral powers for granted.

Thankfully, the game's transition to GameCube saw it expand into a much more wholesome experience. In a way, you could say that Dōbutsu no Mori actually released at the right time in the N64's life; it essentially gave Nintendo a sound business reason to make a GameCube version. What if it had released during the height of N64's popularity and still saw disappointing sales? Would Nintendo have been as keen to have revitalised it on a new system, let alone release it to a worldwide audience?

With regards to the series' eventual global success, a lot of praise should be attributed to Nintendo Treehouse, the localisation division of Nintendo of America. The GameCube version's solid sales figures in Japan gave Nintendo the confidence it needed in order to release it in North America. When translating the Japanese version of the GameCube game, the Nintendo Treehouse team had to adjust the game to suit Western customs and traditions, which meant creating new holidays and items. The end result — as we all know — was exceptional, so much so that Nintendo of Japan actually translated the NoA version back into Japanese and released it as an updated version called Dōbutsu no Mori e+.

Looking back in retrospect, it's crazy to think that a simple N64 game releasing at an inopportune moment in the system's lifespan would result in a series that has now grown to take the world by storm. Nevertheless, it would be wrong to think that Nintendo ported Dōbutsu no Mori to the GameCube just so it could make a better return on its investment. If anything, the Big N — like with nearly all its major franchises — always knew it was on to a good thing with its peculiar communication game. All it needed was a chance to give Animal Crossing enough exposure in order to reel in the players, and as the series' history has shown us, that's exactly what the Japanese games giant did.

From the web

Related Games

User Comments (80)



willobee said:

Pokemon Gold and Silver had built in cartridge clocks first, which is much more impressive given that they are Gameboy titles. Just sayin'. Not sure if any games beat them to it...



WinterWarm said:

Animal Crossing is awesome, I decided to buy New Leaf. It'll be my first game of the series!




Was never big into this series but I got interested by watching others play in my home. I'm looking forward to giving this a try tomorrow.



LasermasterA said:

Personally I will see how this game turns out and then decide on purchasing it. I have played harvest moon before and the series is interesting and this sounds quite a bit like that. Real time clock feature is interesting, maybe better than the in-game clock in Harvest Moon.



Arcamenel said:

Wild World was my first Animal Crossing game as of last month, so really excited for New Leaf.



MegaWatts said:

@willobee oh don't worry, I wasn't trying to infer that Animal Crossing was the first to feature a clock system, as I'm aware that Gold/Silver did it first. I just think that the feature in general is pretty cool! We seem to take it for granted today, or maybe I'm just an old fuddyduddy retro gamer stuck in the past!



XFsWorld said:

@LDXD Lol I can understand that tho, sometimes when i type in replies wit my 3DS-it do the same thing.



S7eventhHeaven said:

bring it to wii-u. we need more quality. sonic lost world is a defo system seller looks mind blowingly good



idork99 said:

@MegaWatts lol! I guess I'm an old "fuddyduddy" myself as I love all the old tech that has influenced the current tech. Example, I still think the "d-pad" on the original NES is the greatest thing to happen to gaming! Lol. I know it's not but I do use it in every game I can

Anyhow, just a couple of more hours for New Leaf as I'll be downloading my copy when the clock strikes midnight



Gioku said:

I would be surprised if they don't make an Animal Crossing game for Wii U! It's been on all of their systems since the N64, excluding GBA. And that was probably only because it wouldn't have been able to handle it very well.



Captain_Gonru said:

While I can understand the desire for a demo (really, demos should be the norm, not the exception), with a game like this, I don't know that a demo would do it justice.



Giygas_95 said:

Loved Wild World and City Folk, and I'm definitely getting this one. Having just taken the ACT test for the final time, I've passed the last hill before I finally get to Animal Crossing New Leaf.

Around 12:00 A.M., it's me, my 3DS, and ACNL!



Balaclavab said:

Once I've saved up a bit more money, and got the golden watering can and the last 4 paintings on Wild World, I may get this



Epicnessofme99 said:

I played all except for the City Folk (The Wii one) and loved them all, it's a no brainer i'll be picking this one up, the games offer hours and hours of fun.



1upsuper said:

Can't wait for New Leaf tomorrow. I own all the ACs (sans the N64 one; hoping to snag that one soon), and e+ has remained my favorite. Here's hoping NL dethrones it.



Kirk said:

I really wish this game had evolved a bit more in terms of graphics and presentation since the original N64 version (that was TWELVE years ago).

If fact, if you look at the world shadows on the original N64 version, that's the N64 version, you might notice they actually change position based on the time of day.

It seems that not only have the graphics or presentation of this game not advanced much but shockingly in some ways it's even went backwards.

I'm sorry but I just don't find this game impressive at this point in time. I just expect so much more.

I would have expected far far better graphics and presentation by now, much bigger scope and just more of everything at this point.

This game could be so much more...



Zombie_Barioth said:

@MegaWatts @idork99
Maybe we should start a club.

Theres just something really fascinating about looking back at all the old tech and comparing it to what we have today, heck just comparing cartridges to memory sticks is amazing if you think about it.

The same goes for games, especially those in the same franchise or series.



bahooney said:

@Kirk Seeing as how you're on a Nintendo site, I'm actually surprised about your comments. Nintendo has always been about gameplay over graphics. The N64 version is waaaaaay more blocky than New Leaf. The difference is night and day. But even if it wasn't, it's a wonderful style that they're going for, and the gameplay backs it up. Animal Crossing isn't about being some flashy HD special effects game.



SBOY said:

Help me undertand why I should buy AC... I mean the game is about "doing nothing" but still people like it... I just can't undertand...



Funny_Moblin said:

@SBOY I was thinking of not getting it at first, but as stated by the IGN review, it's an experience that's hard to expain, and trailers can't really show it.

I never played an Animal Crossing game myself, as New Leaf will be my first AC game, but I can understand what it's about still.

Yes, you do nothing. But you make your own goals, just like life. Many people consider this game to be very similar to real life. You can build houses, do gardening, buy T-shirts, etc.

All in all, it's a virtual reality you can escape to when life is tough on you



Funny_Moblin said:

These last few days, I've been torturing myself on which verison of AC to get: Digital or physical. I'd get digital, but I want a game that lasts forever, a game I can still play in 40 years.



sinalefa said:

My first experience with AC was actually with the Wii Version. Played 150 hours of this until my bro's girlfriend (both of them played too) scratched the disc and it went unreadable.

Ironic that a game that gives you the freedom to do things at your own pace and that lets you choose which tasks to do, for how long, etc. actually enslaves you with its addictiveness.

I know that I will get NL and that I will go retail, but I don't know when, since this can take a lot of my gaming time and I still have a hefty backlog.



Funny_Moblin said:

Also, is Animal Crossing a game where you can make a lot of progress and something you should be worried about if you lose it?



DerpSandwich said:

I was sold on the first game before it was even released. I read about it in Nintendo Power and basically drove myself batty with anticipation. Seriously, that sold just by reading about it! It ended up being everything I wanted it to be.

So at 9pm tonight, I'm going to spend some time being a child again. I'm not exactly sure what makes Animal Crossing so special, but I think it has something to do with that.



Megumi said:

Yeah I never knew that there was an N64 version until a couple of AC articles ago. xD
And I'm getting New Leaf even though I couldn't stay into City Folk long. This game is just better on handhelds.



Doma said:

I wonder how many people here will be bored of this within a week of playing it. The odds are high.



Megumi said:

I've played Wild World quite a while before actually getting bored of it...its not the kind of game where you play it can do quite a lot in Animal Crossing, so yeah. (I remember someone made all of the grass look like the grass from one of the GameBoy Zelda games, lol)



Morpheel said:

@doma: Wild World has lasted me 8 years, and I do get bored of it and stop playing for long periods of time, but I always come back.



TeslaChippie said:

@Funny_Moblin You'll find that you form a deeply personal connection to your town and losing that would be a significant bummer. Also, if you're going for a perfect town rating, or a complete collection of bugs, fish, and fossils, know that these things can take months--if not YEARS--to accomplish. So yeah, there's a lot to lose IF that stuff is important to you.



TeslaChippie said:

@Doma Haha, AC usually gives you different things to do every day. Also, it's a game you should look forward to playing for an hour a day for years, not eight hours a day for a week.



Prof_Elvin_Gadd said:

I was thinking about going the digital route for this, but I have two 3DS' so I guess I'm going with the cartridge. If my beloved Nintendo had a better online strategy I'd probably download it. It seems like a game you'd want to have with you all the time. I'm an Animal Crossing noob!



solcross said:

I remember waiting all day to come home from school to play the first AC for Gamecube. I'm feeling that same excitement today as I wait for 9PM to roll around for the digital release.



solcross said:

@SBOY Correct, midnight Eastern but I'm Pacific. They did the same thing for Fire Emblem: Awakening, so the release time is server-side apparently.



Funny_Moblin said:

@TeslaChippie Thanks very much for your answer. Now, I heard that plants get ruined if you leave the game unattended for a long time. Does anything else beside NPCs and plant get negatively affected if I don't play the game for a long time? What about the town I have built or my collections?



TeslaChippie said:

@Funny_Moblin I haven't confirmed this with anybody yet, but the rate at which your town "decays" (weeds growing, flowers dying, etc.) seems much slower in this game than in Wild World. Also, there are a few "town ordinances" you can enact as mayor to help you out with certain town maintenance issues if you're going to be away for a while (on vacation or something). Residents can move in and out of the town whether or not you see them off, so you may come back to a completely new cast of characters after a few months. Other than that, your town should remain mostly unchanged over time. It's fairly forgiving... not that you'll want to stop playing it =P



TeslaChippie said:

@Funny_Moblin Oh, and in previous Animal Crossing games, your house would take a maintenance hit after a VERY long absence (dust and roaches)... I haven't waited long enough to see if that happens in New Leaf yet, but it's only an annoyance at worst anyway.



Funny_Moblin said:

@TeslaChippie Oh, haha, thanks so much for the answer. So, I suppose there's no big loss after all. Even though buying the game digitally would be more beneficial, I want to be safe with a physical copy, or else I'll be paranoid lol.

I'm seriously so thankful for helping me out here (sorry to sould like an AC villager LOL) but I only have one more question, if you don't mind. How do wifi-events work? Are they there for one day, and then they are gone, or can you play them with friends as much as you like? Do players build those maps?

Sorry, I'm noob as I've yet to play an AC game (New Leaf) BTW K.K Condor is stuck in my head xD



Tony3DS said:

Great article I knew about the N64 Japan only but not how it was later re-translated back from the Treehouse version. I loved the original much more than Wild World because of the holidays and virtual console games. Starting a new leaf right now though, just waiting on the download!



BJQ1972 said:

I remember the excitement of a Birthday or Toy Day on the GC version, hoping a NES game would appear in my post box - only to be met with crushing disappointment. It's like waiting for VC releases on a Thursday.



Kirk said:


Nintendo really hasn't always been about gameplay over graphics. That's just a modern myth constructed by the most hardcore fanboys to defend Nintendo's weaker modern day consoles like the Wii and Wii U.

The SNES, N64 and GC were all about power, or graphics, back in the day and that power went alongside great gameplay. In fact the SNES and N64 were the most powerful main consoles of their respective generations and the GC was certainly up there and some people would argue was also the most powerful console of it's generation too (not me but it was close). Christ, the NES and SNES both had the slogans "Now You're Playing With Power!" and "Now You're Playing With Super Power!". Power/graphics used to be very important to Nintendo, alongside making great games.

Games like Super Mario Bros 3, Super Mario World, Super Mario Kart, F-Zero, Pilotwings, Yoshi's Island, Donkey Kong Country, Star Fox, Super Mario 64, Ocarina of Time, Wave Race, Metroid Prime, Wind Waker...all had cutting edge graphics at the time, most of them still look great even today as a matter of fact, and still managed to play brilliantly too. The graphics did not come at the expense of the gameplay. They worked in tandem with it and indeed enhanced the overall experience in each of those games.

Nintendo used to make games that were both cutting edge in terms of graphics and gameplay but these days all we've really got is gameplay and the rare occasional high point with graphics.

Animal Crossing is a game that has far more potential than what is being realized. Both the graphics/presentation and indeed the gameplay could be taken much further and after 10 years and multiple sequels I'd just love to see it happen.



Kryce said:

I got my first Animal crossing on the ds, and I still play on it to this day.
you can stop playing this game but you never really quit playing it.



Schprocket said:

To the people with the "what gives?" attitude think "The Sims", then ask if yourself if you still truly believe that people (besides you) will be bored with it after a week.
Never under-estimate a title just because it's never appealed to you directly.

I was the same about Pokemon - there, I dared say it in a Nintendo forum - until I actually played it, and believe me, when most of your 50 y.o. peers are fishing or getting divorced or whatever preoccupies their time, saying that you have played Pokemon at this time of your life feels more socially unacceptable (amongst peers) than having alternate sexual preferences.

What I learned from playing a game that I used to say "what gives?" was that beneath the cutesy premise lies a deep strategy game... and a helluva lot of grinding.

So until you play a game that you don't understand where the appeal lies, you cannot judge (a) how well it appeals to a broader gaming population and (b) decide for others what they should and shouldn't like.

As for AC, I bought the GC version when I had my first Wii (that story is elsewhere in this site) and was one that I bought to see if my wife would enjoy and she did. However after watching and helping her play her game, I ended up creating my own character and killing a lot of time that way

These days, I'm trying to buy games that I know that I like and that I'll come close to completing (as with Fire Emblem: Awakening which I hope to finish a least once through before Project X Zone is released) and I'm not likely to buy ACNL - for myself.
However I do have a preorder of New Leaf on cartridge for my wife,
Besides, I can always play a game or two on my own 3DS if/when she decides she's had enough



Psychomalone said:

@Lasermaster123 harvest moon oftens draws comparisons with animal crossing, but they are very different. Hm pits you against the clock, trying to get your daily chores completed so you can do other things. AC doesnt expect anything fron you. You're time is you're own, and you'll often find yourself catching bugs well into thw early hours of the night, especially during summer



Roltron said:

I remember when I was really young and my mom came home with a bunch of Gamecube games. They all looked pretty bad except for one game caught my eye. Animal Crossing. My brothers and I played that game so much. We used to fight over who got to play next. Anyways, I've played every game in the series (Well , every game that's been released in NA) Wild world was the most fun, but I don't think anything will beat the memories I have of the original. I am extremely excited for New Leaf. I gotta wait a few months before I can pick it up though.



Fronzy said:

Is this series any good? I never tried any game from Animal Crossing, and I'm planing to. Any Nintendo games like Animal Crossing?



TeslaChippie said:

@Fronzy Sorry, but Animal Crossing is pretty one-of-a-kind. It's a very slow, chill game that serves a different purpose from any other game: it slows you down, lets you relax. It's like The Sims without the pressure. I say it's a very valuable game that'll get you laughing. Give it a shot!



TeslaChippie said:

@Funny_Moblin Well, most of the events in your town (Halloween, tournaments) are based on the calendar and will occur whether you're connected to the internet or not. Your friends can participate in these with you on the day that they occur. Most events take place in your town, or on the island getaway you can get to later in the game. You have a small part in choosing the layout of your town at the beginning of the game, but other than that you don't have any control over the maps.



TeslaChippie said:

@Kirk Actually these graphics are quite good. They use the same shaders and lighting engine used in Super Mario 3D land, and in various videos there's evidence of reflection, refraction, and even bump mapping for surface textures (grass, snow) going on. I don't really see how they could push the art style much further without losing the integrity of its charm.

Also, New Leaf introduces more new gameplay mechanics than any entry in the series. There's a literally mind-boggling list of dialogue options, town settings, and occupations to experience and once you've done all that, you'll likely have spent more time in Animal Crossing than in many other games combined.

I know you're not just idly complaining, though, because both of your posts here were well-written. I'm curious; what sort of gameplay changes would you like to see in Animal Crossing? Be honest Thanks!



Funny_Moblin said:

@TeslaChippie Oh too bad I can't create my own events (eg: that river race will pitfalls). ALso, it's too bad none of my friends in real life own a 3DS or Wii U. They are the typical Xbox 360 COD players...



Funny_Moblin said:

Since I'll be getting the cartridge version, I hope the game doesn't getting ruined over time by popping the game in and over when switching with other 3DS games constantly..



TeslaChippie said:

@Funny_Moblin Haha, oh well. I guess you could say I'M a typical Xbox 360 COD player myself, but I do have time to play games on every other system as well This week, between Animal Crossing, e3, and The Last of Us, is set up to be one for the ages =o



Kirk said:


Well if I were to really go deep into it I'd have to spend a lot of time to properly think things through and put together detailed examples etc but I'd just like the world to be a bit better realized as a proper sandbox and have a lot more to it and in it.

I mean some people claim Animal Crossing is all about social communication but the fact and truth of the matter is that before all the more social aspects of Animal Crossing were introduced over the various versions it was more about being a cool little sandbox town where you could meet new friends and just play around in the world.

I'd like to see that aspect of it much more fleshed out. The current design just feels very limited in what it let's the player do, although with each version it's slowly edging closer to being a fully realized sandbox but it's just taking so long to get there.

I would have Animal Crossing set on a decent sized fully formed island for example, much bigger than what it is now, with much more area for exploration and discovery, as well as play, and I'd make sure that everything in/on that island was fully interactive and explore-able by the player. Maybe the island would have different areas that you initially choose from to settle, such as the forest area, the beach/shore area, the mountains, the desert etc. Once you pick one that's where your village is and you actually have to physically travel to visit the other villages in the different areas.

Maybe think of something like Wii Sports Resort for the island but with the animal inhabitants of Animal Crossing and a visual style to that of Diddy Kong Racing but in full 3D with proper fur shading on the animals and better realtime lighting and shadows etc. Just stuff to make the world feel more alive and polished. Hard to explain but the current stuff just looks a bit underdeveloped imo.

Also, the current rolling log effect and very grid like design just feels very contrived and restrictive imo.

I'd let the player swim freely in any water, diving under it, diving into it from the land, splashing around. I'd let the player sail/paddle that little boat manually to the other tropical island, rather than have a cut-scene take them there. I mean look at the water in Diddy Kong Racing by comparison...It's so much better realized and more inviting and you can actually see into and under it. You actually want to play in and on that water, racing, swimming, diving etc.

You'd be able to position houses at angles too, if you want, like they appeared in the original Animal Crossing on N64. Just because it looks more organic. Inside the houses would be a bit more interactive and less like a simple object gallery.

Also, I would make each player an animal themselves, and you could choose from any animal in the game (still with customisable colors, clothing etc), rather than a human because I think that would just fit in so much better, give the player much cooler designs in which animal they'd pick, and I just think the animals look so much better than the silly little generic human character we currently have.

The online would be vastly expanded so you could have loads of people wandering around one town all playing together and interacting etc. Say like 64 people online on each big island, with maybe multiple different island that each have multiple villages for you to visit including custom ones for each player etc. I'd possibly have it be a bit more like an MMO in terms of having lots of characters in the world, interacting and stuff.

These are all just rough ideas and if I were doing this seriously I'd spend a lot more time thinking about exactly how to implement all this stuff so as to only improve the entire Animal Crossing experience, not detract from it in any way, but I'm just throwing stuff out there so you get the idea.

I'll just keep adding stuff as it pops into my head...



Funny_Moblin said:

@TeslaChippie Oh yeah, someday I'd like to play The Last of Us, and I', also intered in Watch_Dogs!! Btw do you think I'll have a problem with the cartridge for 3DS if I keep popping it in and out almost everyday for years??



TeslaChippie said:

@Kirk You have some interesting ideas there actually. It'd be interesting to see some of those, such as a larger persistent world and maybe "settling" your own town in the wilderness, brought to the series.



TeslaChippie said:

@Funny_Moblin Nope! In fact I still have my launch-day Nintendo DS and my demo copy of Metroid Prime Hunters: First Hunt, and both work fine to this day. I'd recommend maintaining the contacts (metal bits) of your older games so that they don't deteriorate, but other than that it's just about responsible use. The number of times you pop a game in and out shouldn't matter one bit; I'd be more worried about the spring mechanisms that hold the card in place in the actual system. But again, my DS is almost a decade old and works fine when I need it to!



Funny_Moblin said:

@TeslaChippie Thanks so much for the answer! I assume that when you mean I should maintain the metal bits, it means that I just shouldn't leave it thrown around, meaning I should have the cartridge in the box when it isn't in the DS or 3DS. Well, thanks again!



Drawdler said:

I think that Wild World helped it a lot. My dad and I can stand neither the GameCube nor Wii game because we don't have the chance to use the TV for games nearly as much. But we both love the DS games because Animal Crossing is just so much more suited to portable play. I'm looking forward to playing New Leaf and Skylanders with him. I wonder how we would react to a Wii U game with off-TV play.



LasermasterA said:

@Psychomalone So you can do nothing productive in Animal Crossing if you don't feel like it? That's neat Harvest Moon often gets hectic as you try to complete all chores, befriend sprites, go fish, go gather, etc. I might pick this up later on Although these games are really not something that I play much but I don't really mind them. They can be relaxing!



Emaan said:

I own all the games in the series~
Animal Crossing has certainly come a long way!



WinterWarm said:


Sorry, my connection kept timing out, and yet it seems every time I hit 'Reply,' that it sent a comment. DANG MY ROUTER!



PeachxZelda said:

My favorite was Wild World for the DS. I didn't care for the GameCube or Wii versions that much. I'm can't wait to get this game on Monday.



puddinggirl said:

I've NEVER had a Nintendo console and bought a 3DS XL for this game.

It's one of the best decisions that I've made on gaming. This game still amazes me with its attention to details, intricacy and sense of humor.



puddinggirl said:

@Lasermaster123 Harvest Moon is a very different game not only because you are always under the pressure of completing tasks, it doesn't really give you a sense of an open world but more of a guided/pre-determined experience of "being a farmer".

AC on the other hand, makes players feel like the character is actually living in the town (open world). Like what others have mentioned, you don't HAVE to do anything to enjoy the game if you don't want to. And there are SO many small things which will surprise you and make you smile at the same time.



Kafei2006 said:

@willobee : Far East of Eden Zero did it long before that on Super Famicom if you want to go that route. And that's just the oldest one that comes to mind, perhaps there's even older ones than that.

Leave A Comment

Hold on there, you need to login to post a comment...