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Interview: Daniel Johnson Discusses His Critical Analysis of Wario Land 4

Posted by Thomas Whitehead

"It's all about improving the current conversation around games"

In recent weeks we've let you know about an eBook called Game Design Companion: A Critical Analysis of Wario Land 4, in which author Daniel Johnson adopts a thorough, detailed approach to the popular Game Boy Advance game. With over 600 pages that include essays, room-by-room breakdowns and an extensive glossary forming just part of the content, it's an ambitious text that challenges the reader to thing about the games they're playing in a different way.

As a relatively unique piece of writing currently in the market, we were keen to learn more about the motivations and ideas behind the book. We've caught up with Daniel Johnson to get that insight.

Nintendo Life: First of all, can you introduce yourself and tell us a little about your background?

Daniel Johnson: I'm Daniel. I'm from Adelaide, Australia. I've been writing about games for 7 years now, primarily on my blog, but also for other places too. Most of my writing is centred around understanding gameplay and game design. Outside of writing, I work with English Second Language learners doing training and language assessment.

NL: To kick us off on the eBook, please outline the key details of your book and its approach to analysing Wario Land 4.

DJ: Sure. I take Wario Land 4 and break it down into its key components, I analyse those parts, and then look at how they all fit together in the context of the game's levels. Through this process, I cover all sorts of interesting topics like mechanics, narrative, psychology, skills, and education.

As for my approach, my thinking goes like this: Video games are complicated systems of rules which combine the expertise of various professions (graphic design, music, engineering, etc.). Therefore, to talk about games critically, we need a language to articulate the complexities of this art and should use specific examples to ground our ideas. In Game Design Companion, this approach allows me to make specific observations about Wario Land 4's game design, and thereby reveal the incredible level of ingenuity and artistry that goes into video games.

NL: When did you originally come up with the idea for this project?

DJ: I came up with the idea and started planning in late 2010, but didn't start the first draft until January, 2011.

NL: You explain early in the book that, in approaching Wario Land 4 in this way, you're really critiquing games writing in its current form. Can you expand on that for us?

DJ: Sure. Well, by using a clear language and examples to anchor my ideas, I'm able to articulate exactly what makes Wario Land 4's gameplay great. This is something that I feel that the gaming community at large is struggling with (talking about games beyond the surface). It's why we go to Roger Ebert to tell us if and why our medium is any good. In recent years, there's been a burgeoning community of blogs and writers who are trying to approach games more seriously (games criticism). This is fantastic. However, making broad generalisations and focusing on one's opinions and not on the game itself is not going to get us any closer to understanding games/ourselves as players. This is what I see when I look at the current state of games criticism. In this sense, Game Design Companion is trying to be a counterweight. I want to show people the other side of the coin, what games criticism would look like if someone had the right tools to discuss gameplay.

I also like the idea of me writing about Wario Land as opposed to The Last of Us, Bioshock Infinite, or something like that. Those games are all over the shop when it comes to gameplay design.

NL: So why did you choose Wario Land 4?

DJ: The original idea was to write about Metroid Prime, but I was living in China at the time and didn't have access to a Gamecube/Wii and Metroid Prime. So I opted for Wario Land 4 because I thought that I could write a solid 80-120 pages on it as a sort of warm-up to a larger book on Metroid Prime. And then I just kept writing.

Wario Land 4 is also a fantastically convenient game to write about. For example, more so than the previous games in the series, Wario Land 4 has a refining level variation. So each level introduces an idea and builds upon on it room by room, as opposed to just having a set of unrelated level arrangements put together without order or structure. Makes my job a lot easier.

I also like the idea of me writing about Wario Land as opposed to The Last of Us, Bioshock Infinite, or something like that. Those games are all over the shop when it comes to gameplay design.

NL: The scale of the book may seem daunting for some. Can you outline the structure, and how you've broken the book up into multiple sections?

DJ: Sure. The book is written so that each section prepares the reader for the next.

Need to Know - I introduce the game mechanics, game elements, and other important bits of info. This part is important for framing the rest of the book, but it's quite analysis-lite, so it doesn't require heavy reading.

Digging Deeper - I cover the key areas of Wario Land 4's design, like the mechanical balance, game feel, interplay, narrative and game ideas, visual/audio, psychology, etc.

Level Analysis -The meat of the book. I take all of the concepts from Digging Deeper and explore them more thoroughly by applying them to the levels.

Topical Essays - A warm down from the level analysis. I talk a bit about Wario Land 4 in respects to other games in the series, the mechanical differences between Mario and Wario, etc.

The book also has screenshots and diagrams, so it's not as menacing as you might think!

NL: With the level of detail in this book — at one point with room-by-room breakdowns — can you highlight your target audience? Are you aiming for aspiring and current game designers, or do you also hope that those that are perhaps eager gamers (without game design ambitions) will be engaged?

DJ: Both. It's all about improving the current conversation around games, and that's good for both players and designers alike. I'm not into academic gobbledygook or talking fancy just for the sake of it. Game Design Companion is written so that anyone can read it. Since we released in December, I've had both game designers and players come to me and tell me that they've enjoyed the book. If you've got an interest in better understanding games, then I think that you'll get a lot out of this book.

NL: Is it fair to say that the major goal of this book is to promote the idea of a greater academic focus on gaming? Encouraging a form of study and analysis common in academia for other art-forms, such as literature, fine art, film and so on?

DJ: Sure, you could say that, but I don't really link it to academia. It's more about how we can have better conversations around games. I think that everyone who's grown up on games hopes that the medium will be taken more seriously. This is why building the language necessary to be able to talk critically/accurately about games is important.

NL: Where do you think we stand today in this field of critical analysis in gaming?

DJ: The state of games writing at the moment is the best it's ever been. There are more voices talking about games and therefore a better audience representation. People are also better organised too and the blogs have this trickle-down effect which is slowly changing the sorts of writing we're seeing on the larger sites. As for the games analysis stuff I do, it's a desert. People don't even know what serious games analysis looks like yet, which is part of the reason why I wrote the book.

NL: For those eager to learn more about Critical Gaming, to borrow a phrase from your introduction, what resources can you recommend?

DJ: Ooohh..lots! Most of the things I've learnt about game design have come from my good friend and mentor, Richard Terrell, and his site Critical-Gaming. His Game Design 101 series is a good start for newcomers. The articles on the 2D Mario games, Smash Bros., Kid Icarus: Uprising, Pokemon, and Pikmin are all fantastic too.

The two of us are also part of a weekly games discussion group. We're always looking for new people join us. Otherwise, you've got my blog, and my Adventures in Games Analysis bookazine series will starting up soon. So there's plenty of ways to get started.

We'd like to thank Daniel Johnson for his time. The eBook is available for $4.99 until 14th February, after which it'll cost $7.99; it can be found on the Amazon Kindle store or as a DRM-free multi-format purchase on Stolen Projects.

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User Comments (23)



sinalefa said:

Thanks for the interview, Tom. Those links at the end look very interesting, but it seems I will need to take my time to read them.

My bro has a Kindle, so that is one way of getting the book.



the_truth said:

Sounds like a bunch of hot air. He keeps using words like 'psychology' without elaborating on what he actually means. I'm not sure how this is supposed to lead to 'better conversations around games'.



SquirrelNuts said:

This book was awesome. It really changed how I look at games, and game criticism. I can say that I won't be buying games based on reviews anymore. It's kind of exciting to see things through a new lens. Thank you Mr. Johnson.



Drawdler said:

I totally agree with him on this subject, actually. Looking forward to reading the book.



warvad said:

It's a shame he didn't discuss how the game was intensely suitable for high-level play, like the deterministic coin cap and full-health coin bonus...



Nareva said:

@the_truth You do realize this is a very short interview about a 600+ page book? I imagine he elaborates at some length there.



alLabouTandroiD said:

I like his way of thinking. I really should check out these links.
And i'd be interested in the book if it ever was available on paper.



TruenoGT said:

I love the idea and think it's a noble goal to elevate the discussion of games as an entertainment and creative medium. However, I struggle with the concept of wanting to read this book because I often find that the more I know about the nuts and bolts of making something, the less special/magical it becomes to me as a consumer of it. Maybe someday...



LittleIrves said:

I'm all for more books about single games, instead of the redundant 'History of Games!' encyclopedias that seemed to be all there was for a time.

Man, a book about Mario 2 would be AWESOME....



Saphis said:

I'd love to read his thoughts on the narrative; I really hopes he gives the game due credit there. I think the narrative is positively genius, primarily in the subtlety of its details and how very little of it is communicated through cutscenes, but it's not purposely obfuscated either.

Well... I should say the apparent backstory, not so much the narrative of the game itself.



Porky said:

First paragraph, last sentence, there's a word misspelled. "Thing" is supposed to be "think".



ikki5 said:

was I the only one who read the title as "Daniel Jackson" and then thought stargate?



Geonjaha said:

Eh. Playing the 10 GBA ambassador games, this was one of my least favorites. I can see that it's well made but it was too dull compared to previous platformers.



Mikes said:

I'd like to buy this soon. It certainly sounds like something I'd spend a lot of time reading. I haven't been interested in buying a book in quite a while.



B3ND3R said:

"it's an ambitious text that challenges the reader to THING about the games they're playing in a different way."

Sorry, just thought I should point this out..



DanielPrimed said:

Hey, I'm Daniel Johnson. I wrote Game Design Companion. @_@

@Spoony - No worries. I saw your comment on one of the news articles. I'm wrapped that you've enjoyed the book so much!

@Genesaur - I'm a big fan of Jeremy's work, but I haven't read much of his Anatomy of the Game series. I suspect that it's quite similar too. He's been following the Wario book for a while and was the first person to cover us pre-release, which is cool.

@TruenoGT - I find it to be the opposite. The more you learn, the more you can appreciate the magic.

@Philip_J_Reed - Glad you like it. The second half of the book is a big step up from the first.

@Saphis - I cover narrative as it's own topic and also through the moment-to-moment gameplay. I think that you'll find that my approach is very gameplay/interaction-orientated, which is somewhat different to how most writers discuss game narrative.

@sketchturner - I still have plans, but I'm yet to settle on an appropriate format for the book.

@sackferret - I got a 3DS for Christmas and I'm trying to take it out with me when I go to the city, so maybe I'll see you on the local Mii scene!



rumple88 said:

Well I just picked up Wario Land Shake it! and Smoove moves. What an under rated franchise, this interview makes we want to check the rest of the wario games I missed.

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